Great mathematician & physicist Sir Isaac Newton was Englishman who is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all period and a key figure for scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”), published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made pioneering gifts to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for the development of calculus. He was recognized as a “Natural Philosopher” in his own day as well as at present day also. Newton’s principals founded universal gravitation and the laws of motion, which has dominated scientists’ view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.Newton remains influential to today’s scientists, as verified by a 2005 survey of members of Britain’s Royal Society, where Newton was a former head, asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists considered Newton to have made the greater overall contribution to the field of science.
Newton was against to the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System and detached the last doubts about it by deriving Kepler’s laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity. He used the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena. Beside his work on calculus, as a mathematician he contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents. He founded a method for resembling the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane. Outside his effort on the mathematical sciences, Newton devoted much of his time to the study of biblical chronology and alchemy, but maximum number of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death.
Newton was born prematurely and was a small child. His mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug.Isaac Newton was born according to the Julian calendar on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Newton’s father died when he was 3 years. Similarly, his mother married again with Reverend Barnabsa Smith and left him in the upkeep of his motherly granny, Margery Ayscough after he was 3 years. When Newton was 19, he was against and disliked his step father and retained some antagonism toward his mother for remarrying. He threatened them to burn them and the house.
Newton never got married but claimed that he once got engaged. Newton was never sensible to any passion toward any woman. He had close relation with the Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier but later breakdown. At the same time Newton suffered a nervous breakdown.
In April 1705, Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College, Cambridge. Sir Francis Bacon was first and Newton was the second scientist to be reward as Knighted. Newton was elected to President of the Royal Society in 1703 and subordinate of the French Académie des Sciences.
Newton died in his sleep in London on 20 March 1727 and was cemented in Westminster Abbey. Newton’s hair contained mercury when it was studied later; it was possibly from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury harming could explain Newton’s bizarreness behaviour in late life.