A short analysis of Biology


Science (Latin: Scientia = Knowledge) is an organized body of knowledge supported by observation and experimentation, derived from the study of natural phenomena of entire material universe. It contributes not only towards knowing how things happen, but also in organizing the knowledge thus obtained and making it available to others. The primary objective of science has been to give mankind greater security, better health and happy life. To achieve this, science has helped us in many ways. Today our lives are more comfortable because of science.

There are three major branches of science, namely Physics, Chemistry and Biology.


(Greek: bios = life, logos= discourse or study) is the study of life or the study of all living things. It was adopted as a scientific term by Jean Lamarck (1744-1829) in the early part of the nineteenth century and soon it spreads into general use to denote the study of living organisms. It aims at explaining the activities of living organisms as well as various life phenomena in term of Physics and chemistry. It is concerned not merely with co-relation between parts of the living organisms as a whole and its environment. It enquirers into the origin of life and explains the gradual evolution of the infinite of modern plants and animals.

Branches of Biology

 Branches of Biology
Biology is a vast science. There has been a steady, yet rapid increase of knowledge about organism. For the sake of convenience, biology is divided into
a. Botany
b. Zoology
The term botany comes from the Greek word “botane” (meaning herb) which deals with the study of plants and zoology is derived from two Greek words “zoo” (meaning animal) and “logos” (meaning study). Zoology is therefore, concern with animals.
Major subdivisions of Biology in term of the approach of studying it
In order to understand their different aspects, living organisms are studied from various ways. Each of these ways forms a distinct branch of biology and is given a special names; the important ones of which are discussed below.

a. Morphology:  Morphology is the study of external and internal form and structure of organisms. It is subdivided into two branches:

a) Anatomy: It is the study of gross internal structure of the organisms or their separate parts.
b) Histology: It is the study of microscopic structure of tissue and organs.

 b. Cytology: Cytology deals with cells. Cells are the small units, of which plants and animals are made.

c. Physiology: It is the study of various life processes within the organisms. It deals with growth, respiration, reproduction, etc.
d. Embryology: It is the study of the early development of plants and animals. It studies the process of the formation and growth of embryo.
e. Palaentology: It is the study of prehistoric forms of life through fossils of plants and animals. This process helps us to understand the process of evolution of plants and animals.
f. Genetics: It is the study of inheritance of characters by one generation from another generation.

g. Pathology: It is the study of plants and animals diseases, their causes, symptoms and cure.

h. Ecology: It is the study of the relationship between organisms and its living and non-living environment. It also deals with the study of geographical distribution of living organisms.
i.Taxonomy: It is the study of the classification of the plants and animals or the science of naming, grouping and classifying plants and animals, according to their relationship.
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