Salt are generally prepared by action between acid and base. Salt is a neutral substance which possesses neither acidic nor basic property nor it shows no effect on indicators such as litmus paper. Salts need high heat for melting and boiling. Electrolysis takes place in salty solution which means decomposition of an electrolyte by the passage of electric current.
Copper oxide is a metallic oxide (a salt) which, when treated with sulphuric acid produces copper sulphate or complete replacement of hydrogen of an acid by a metal or electropositive radical.
      H2SO4 + NaOH = NaHSO4 + H2O (partial replacement)
     H2SO4 + 2NaOH = NaHSO4 + 2H2O (complete replacement)
When salts are dissolved in water, these ionize giving positively and negatively charged ions other than hydrogen ion (H+) or, hydroxyl (OH) in solution. In some cases hydrogen and hydroxyl ions may also be present in addition to other positive or negative ions, the presence of which is essential characteristics of salt.

General methods of Preparation of salts:

1. All nitrates are soluble.
2. All salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium are soluble.
3. All carbonates are insoluble except sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonates.
4. All sulphates are soluble in water except for barium and lead sulphates which are insoluble and calcium sulphate which is only very soluble.
5. All chlorides are soluble in water except silver and lead chloride.

Some soluble salts are given below:

Chemical name
Molecular formula
Common name
Sodium chloride
Sodium carbonate
Sodium sulphate
Magnesium sulphate
Common salt
Washing soda
Glauber’s salt
Epsom salt

Some salts are insoluble in water. They have industrial importance. Insoluble salts are used to produce different colors. Some are listed below:

Common name of color
Molecular formula
Color produced
Lead sulphate
Copper carbonate
Lead carbonate
Zinc chromate
Titanium dioxide

Uses of Salts:

Common name
Sodium carbonate
Potassium nitrate
Magnesium sulphate
Sodium chloride
Ammonium chloride
Washing soda
Epson salt
Common salt
Softening water, making glass
Fertilizer, gunpowder
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