Relation of Cells to the Organism as a Whole

Relation of Cells to the Organism as a Whole

Even though most of the chemical processes necessary for life is carried out in the cells themselves, they do not exist singly except in the organisms, division of labour between the cells exist. Each group of cells is constantly helping the other group of cells. Each group of the cells has different works and all these groups of cells serve the whole organism. If this division of labour was absent, then the cells would live for a more shorter period of time; consequently, causing the whole organism to die more quickly. Even in unicellular animals, the division of labour exists. The single cell which makes up the body of the unicellular organisms thus, is often biological equivalent to the whole body of multi-cellular organisms. In multi-cellular organisms, the minute cell is directly related to the huge body in the following manner:

1.Tissue: 

Group of cells having the same structure and function work together and perform a special function. These groups of specialized cells are called tissue. The cells present in a tissue are considerable different in shape, size, structure and function from the cells present in another tissue. Therefore, each tissue such as nervous tissue, bone tissue, muscle tissue have different type of cells. In plant too, different types of cells make up different tissue, like xylem, phloem, epidermis, etc.
Tissue in plant

2.Organ :

When different tissues work together, they form an organ of a body. Organ consists of several tissues grouped together making a functional unit. Heart is the example of an organ and is composed muscle and connective tissues. Every organ performs some special functions. For example, lungs, leaf, root are all organs.

Organ

3.System: 

Several organs working together in conjustion form a system. The different systems work together for the normal function of a body. The circulatory system is composed of heart, blood vessels and blood, the nervous system is composed of various organs like brain, back bone and nerves. Digestive system, reproduction system and respiratory system are some other examples.

Human Body System

Human Body System

4.Organism: 

The organs and systems work together smoothly to form a single organism. Each organism, in turn is capable of reproducing its own kind.

Platypus

Platypus

Thus, we can see clearly how a cell is related to the whole organism and why it is called as the “basis of life”.
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