Plastid

 Plastids are colored or colorless cytoplamic bodies present in all plant cells except fungi and bacteria. They are small, spherical, oval or rod like in shape and vary greatly in size. Every plastid is surrounded by a membranous layer which separates them from the remaining cytoplasm.

On the basis of color, plastids are of three types:

1)    Leucoplasts (Leucos = white)
2)    Chromoplasts (Chroma = color)
3)    Chloroplasts (Chlors = green)

Leucoplasts

 

Leucoplasts

Leucoplasts

They are colorless plastids occurring most commonly in the storage cell of root and underground stem. They also occur in other parts of a plant, which are not exposed to light. They are irregular in shape and often large. But they can be small and granular. Leucoplast converts sugar produced during photosynthesis into insoluble starch, and stores it in cells that are not exposed to light like rice grain and potato tuber

Chromoplasts

 

Chromoplasts

Chromoplasts

Chromoplasts are photosynthetically inactive and colored plastids. They are colored other than green; the colors usually ranging between red and yellow. They have no definite shape, may be angular, forked and rod like. Chromoplasts are common in brightly colored parts of the plant like the petals of the flowers and fruits.

The main function is color manifestation for attracting insect for pollination, and dispersal of fruits and seeds.
Pollination Process

Pollination Process


Chloroplasts

 

Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts

 Chloroplasts are the green plastids that are characteristic and unique structures of the green plant cells. They are green due to the presence of a green coloring matter called the chlorophyll. They are found in parts, exposed to light, abundantly occurring in green leaves and green parts of the shoot. They are the sites of photosynthesis activity of the green plant cell. They are mostly spherical or discoidal, but in spirogyra, chloroplast occurs in the form of spiral bands. They are bounded by a double layered membrane. Within this membrane is the matrix of stroma and it contains granules called grana. Both of these grana and stroma contains several enzymes for photosynthesis.
The main function performed by chloroplast is photosynthesis involving the production of complex carbohydrate food matters out of water and carbon dioxide gas in the presence of sunlight.


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