Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm

The protoplasmic mass of a cell, except nucleus, is called cytoplasm. It is hyaline, jelly like in nature and looks granular under microscope. Its outer surface is thin, delicate and non-granular which is called ectoplasm (plasma membrane). It is semipermeable in nature and helps to control materials like water and many chemical substances in and out of the cell. Its inner surface is granular called endoplasm, which performs the general function of the cytoplasm.

Vacuole

In young cells, cytoplasm almost fills up the volume, but with the growth of the cells some distinct cavities called vacuoles are noticed in the cytoplasm. Even young cells have vacuoles, but they are very small. In adult cells, a number of vacuoles may be present or they may coalesce to form a large central vacuole, pushing cytoplasm with the nucleus towards the cell wall. The thin layer of cytoplasm lining a vacuole is called tonoplasm. The vacuole is filled with a fluid known as cell-sap. The vacuole is thus regarded as the store house of water, mineral salts, and certain food substances.
cytoplasm

Cytoplasm is basically the substance that fills the cell.

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